There are many types of management. For example, management according to the tasks of the project.
Management based on sales, finance, or company development. The most popular type of management is goal-based management.
The goals of the manager can be related to the project, the client, or internal goals concerning the organization.
The goals of the organization can also be related to external stakeholders. For example, other organizations or government institutions.
Successfully completed project means achieved goals
Achieving the goals often means that you have completed your project successfully. The most important thing in achieving the goals, however, is their correct definition.
The goal is the desired result, which is determined by the manager. The goal cannot simply be found somewhere or borrowed.
If you are trying to achieve the goal of another manager or company, then you are doomed to failure.
The manager must be well aware of the needs of the project, business, organization, project, and employees. This is the only way to define the right goals.
What is the goal?
The goal is the desired state that the organization seeks to achieve. The significance of the objectives is determined by the fact that:
- they determine the organization’s relationship with the environment;
- serve to clarify management functions and activities;
- determine the parameters of the internal activities of the organization;
- carry information;
- assist other organizations in clarifying intentions;
- legitimize the legality and morality of the organization’s intentions.
Objectives can be formal, operational, and operational
The official goals are valid for the whole organization, are taken at the highest level, refer to a long period and are an expression of management policy, take and at medium levels, apply to one year.
P. Drucker defines 8 operational goals: marketing / related to the marketing policy of the organization /; innovative / are related to the innovation policy /; profitability / are related to profit, income /; material, financial and human resources/resource goals related to the resource policy /; Labour productivity; social goals / are related to social responsibility in the organization /.
The operational goals are related to great specificity/standards, criteria and indicators for evaluation, time, etc./. Operational objectives are linked to a specific operational program.
Goals must meet the following conditions:
- to motivate
- to be used as meters,
- to be realistic,
- to comply with ethical and social values,
- to be interconnected and mutually supportive.
When defining the goals, their diversity, complex nature, conflicts between them, their significance, etc. must be taken into account. They can be defined simultaneously, sequentially, or by priorities.
Goal setting includes setting goals, developing goal metrics, integrating metrics, and practical actions to provide conditions for achieving the goals.
Goal management is a philosophy and management system that unites managers and subordinates in the goal-setting process.
There is an integration between the goals of individual employees and the goals of the entire organization.
Goals management models
There are two models of goal management: individual-oriented and group-oriented.
In the individually oriented model, goal setting is carried out by defining specific areas of responsibility at work, fixing standards for work in each area, and developing a work plan to achieve the desired result.
The participation of subordinates in goal setting is reduced to independent planning and control of their activities. They have freedom of action.
The achieved is evaluated, a concept for higher future results is built.
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The group-oriented model of goal management is based on the creation of working groups, taking into account the relationship between the activities in the group and integration between the goals of individuals.
The conditions for the success of this model are reduced to the existence of the need for cooperation, assistance from senior managers, skills for group work, knowledge of interpersonal relationships.