The so-called “MANAGEMENT GRID”, created by Robert Blake and John Monton (1969), divides styles based on personality orientation and task orientation.
Represents a square divided into a grid (9 rows and 9 columns), the lower-left corner is the “starting point” – a value of 1.1. Horizontal (abscissa) is the orientation to the task.
Both dimensions are independent! Thus:
1.1 is a low score on both parameters;
9.1 – high task orientation and low personality orientation;
1.9 – high orientation to the personality and low orientation to the task;
9.9 – is considered the best style (with high scores on both parameters).
5.5 – the most common style.
Depending on the type of work (eg creative) and the level of staff (eg qualified), there may be effective in either task-oriented or personal orientation. Reference: “Personnel management styles in Human Resource Departments“, https://wikipedia-lab.org/personnel-management-styles-in-human-resource-departments/
Weaknesses in a style of management
Insufficiently effective management activity; intensive work; extension of working hours; physical and mental overload; improper allocation of time (especially for lower-level executives); violation of the proportion “work-free time”; insufficient compliance with the basic principles of working with people; creating a “group”; unrealistic estimates; insufficient use of communication; insufficient application of incentives as a ratio between praise and punishment.
Some authors also create principles that the manager must take into account when building his management style. For example:
– Emphasis on creative work;
– Calm thinking;
– Focus on key issues;
– Purposeful and consistent in bringing to the end;
– Exemption from unnecessary workload and meetings; Reference: “Effective Human Resources managers successfully perform leadership functions“, https://scrumtime.org/effective-human-resources-managers-successfully-perform-leadership-functions/
– Control over the implementation of tasks;
– Evaluation, discussion, dissemination of good experience;
– Elimination of obstacles and misunderstandings;
– The leader should be aware that he sets an example with his behavior and cannot demand from others if he does not give enough;
– To rely on responsible and talented employees and attract them to more active work. Reference: “HR management in HR departments and organizations: psychological problems“, https://bpedia.org/hr-management-in-hr-departments-and-organizations-psychological-problems/
According to most authors, individualism in leadership leads to hopelessness!
The style also depends on the personal qualities of the leader. In the 50s and 60s, these personal qualities were evaluated with greater weight and reached dozens of qualities. Later, the emphasis is on fewer but basic qualities, such as intelligence; ability to adapt to different situations; extraversion; initiative. Reference: “Functions of the conflicts in organizations and Human Resources Management department“, https://www.yahowto.com/functions-of-the-conflicts-in-organizations-and-human-resources-management-department/
However, there is not always a connection between individual qualities and the effectiveness of management! It comes to the idea that the predictors of the effectiveness of this activity are significantly more and that it is necessary to include these qualities: the attitude towards the managed; the peculiarities of the situation (because different situations require the manager to show different qualities).
Recent research does not talk about qualities, but about the “behavior” of the leader, which he shows in different situations. The assessment is to what extent it corresponds to the situation and to what extent the group (or organization) leads to efficiency in the activity. Reference: “Types of conflicts in organizations: Human Resources Managers challenged“, https://agileprogramming.org/types-of-conflicts-in-organizations-human-resources-managers-challenged/
Behavior depends on many factors and includes management style. As the style is relatively stable with transitional characteristics, it is quite difficult to change, but it is a dynamic quantity as it depends on the situational variables and the characteristics of the group.
Shelvin’s classification of styles emphasizes personal characteristics. It identifies 5 effective and 5 ineffective styles associated with these characteristics. Reference: “Conflict Management in Human Resources Management“, https://securityinformationeventmanagement.com/conflict-management-in-human-resources-management/
Effective styles are related to: 1) entrepreneurship; 2) cooperation; 3) realism; 4) organizational skills; 5) maximalism.
Ineffective styles are related to: 1) paternalism; 2) bureaucracy; 3) technocracy; 4) utopianism; 5) bigotry.
This classification is based on the notion that style depends primarily on personality.
Other theories in this category believe that the most pronounced personality trait in many cases determines the style. Reference: “Human resource management (HRM) as a theory“, https://pgov.org/human-resource-management-hrm-as-a-theory/
However, basically, the different theories boil down to:
– “cooperative” style (but different terms are used – consultative, democratic, participatory, humanistic, etc.);
– “authoritarian” style (conducting, task-oriented, technocratic, frustrating, etc.). Reference: “Evolution of the concept of Human Resources Management (HRM)“, https://www.mu7club.com/evolution-of-the-concept-of-human-resources-management-hrm/
The features that characterize these two styles are often presented as poles on a continuum (according to the so-called one-factor theories). However, the two-factor theories are much more active, presenting the features as independent of each other (as different), and the evaluation of the style – as a result of the integration of the two factors.
Many studies (eg in Europe) have shown that the cooperative style is preferred, and the ultimate version of the authoritarian style is considered unacceptable. Reference: “Development of the Human Resources Management (HRM) concept“, https://customer-service-us.com/development-of-the-human-resources-management-hrm-concept/
The most common signs of the cooperative style are: 1) exchange of information; 2) cooperation; 3) delegation of rights; 4) creativity; 5) stimulating the collaborators; 6) control over the process and the result of the work; 7) goal setting; 8) use of staff appraisal; 9) showing trust and recognition, discussing problems and readiness for consultation; 10) overcoming conflicts; 11) taking responsibility; 12) fighting for authority; 13) showing motivation to work in the organization; 14) teamwork; 15) self-reflection; 16) identification with the organization and the group; 17) personal maturity; 18) ability to overcome alienation; 19) loyalty; 20) a sense of self-realization in the organization; 21) giving an equal chance.
This style is dominated by social factors that are highly valued. Reference: “Objectives of Human Resources Management (HRM)“, https://www.powerhp.net/objectives-of-human-resources-management-hrm/
In personnel management, the concepts of “leadership” and “management” are distinguished. The psychological boundary between them is not sufficiently clear, but it can be argued that management refers primarily to company policy and the management of administrative procedures and company structure. Ie management is included in the formal structure of the organization. Leadership refers to the interpersonal relationships themselves. The ideal case is when these two roles are relatively overlapped and performed by one person.
- Reference: “Methods for human resources and personnel management“, https://managerspost.com/methods-for-human-resources-and-personnel-management/
- Reference: “Example of Human Resources plan of an IT / Software company”, https://www.islandjournal.net/example-of-human-resources-plan-of-an-it-software-company/
- Reference: “Get a Human Resources Manager certificate with a good training course”, https://eduwiki.me/get-a-human-resources-manager-certificate-with-a-good-training-course/
- Reference: “Human resources policies in the field of social protection”, https://mstsnl.net/human-resources-policies-in-the-field-of-social-protection/
- Reference: “Human resources management concept“, https://www.muzonet.com/human-resources-management-concept/
- Reference: “How to make a Human Resources plan for our organization”, https://mpmu.org/how-to-make-a-human-resources-plan-for-our-organization/
- Reference: “Human resource management plan in project management practices”, https://bpedia.org/human-resource-management-plan-in-project-management-practices/
The manager is the one who has to set high goals for the organization, to demonstrate abilities and confidence in achieving the goals. The leader can easily lead the team to achieve these goals.